Storage inrastructure


Storage infrastructure refers to the overall set of hardware and software components needed to facilitate storage for a system.
This is often applied to cloud computing, where cloud storage infrastructure is composed of hardware elements like servers, as well as software elements like operating systems and proprietary delivery applications.

The storage infrastructure components are:
1. DAS(Direct Attached Storage) ,
2. SAN(Storage Area Network),
3. NAS(Network Attached Storage),
5. Internet Protocol SAN.

  • DAS is well suited for a small-t-medium sized business where sufficient amounts of storage can be configured at a low startup cost.
  • The DAS enclosure will be a separate adjacent cabinet that contains the additional disk drives
  • An internal PCI-based RAID controller is typically configured in the server to connect to the storage.
  • The SAS(Serial Attached SCSI) technology is used to connect the disk arrays.
  • One of the primary benefits of DAS storage is the lower startup cost to implement.
  • Managing the storage array is done individually as the storage is dedicated to a particular server.

  • With Storage Area Networks, this solution used with medium-to-large size businesses, primarily due to the larger initial investment.
  • SANs leverage external RAID controllers and disk enclosures to provide high-speed storage for numerous potential servers.
  • SANs require an infrastructure consisting of SAN switches, disk controllers, HBAs and fibre cables.
  • The main benefit to a SAN-based storage solution is the ability to share the storage arrays to multiple servers.
  • This allows you to configure the storage capacity as needed, usually by a dedicated SAN environment, and data is highly available through redundant disk controllers and drives.

  • A third type of storage solution exists that is a hybrid option called Network Attached Storage. This solution uses a dedicated server or “appliance” to server the storage array.
  • The storage can be commonly shared to multiple clients at the same time across the existing Ethernet network.
  • The main difference between NAS and DAS and SAN is that NAS server utilize file level transfers, while DAS and SAN solutions use block level transfers which are more efficient.
  • NAS storage typically has a lower startup cost because the existing network can be used.
  • This can be very attractive to small-to-medium size businesses.
  • Different protocols can be used for file sharing such as NFS for UNIX clients and CIF for Windows clients.

4. RAID:
  • RAID stands for “Redundant Array of Independent Disks”.
  • Combine multiple small, inexpensive disk drives into a group to yield performance exceeding that of one large, more expensive drive.
  • It support fault-tolerance by redundantly storing information in various ways.
  • RAID also uses data striping to achieve better performance.

  •  It provide block level communication across a local or wide area network.
  • Internet protocol SAN support availability of data and consolidation.

Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.