System Integrity Verifiers (SIV) monitors system files to detect the Trojan versions of system binaries. An example of SIVis Tripwire. System Integrity Verifiers are used for the following purposes

To monitor and detect changes in the crucial system files made by an attacker.

To issue alerts corresponding to the changes in the crucial system files.

To detect components such as the Windows registry and the chrome configuration.


Consider the worst case scenario-despite all your security precautions, a cracker penetrated your fire wall, using an innovative attack that your NIDS can’t detect. The end state is that your system is compromised. What’s worse, you have no idea. That where a file system IDS comes into play. By creating a digital signature of all critical system files, your system can regularly re-compare these signatures with the actual files. if even a single bit is changed ,your file system IDS will know about it and alert you.

The most popular file system IDS is tripwire. Released as a commercial product for windows and unix, tripwire has been made open source for linux, once again confirming the advanced role Linux plays in the security world. Tripwire works by keeping track of a binary signature of a file, along with the size of the file over time. as is the case with ant highly detailed security tool, optimizing the filters so they match your environment is the most difficult part of the process.

In fact, tripwire is so sensitive that it is used for purpose other than IDS, such as ensuring that unauthorised software from users is not installed on a system or that critical system files haven’t become corrupt through in proper system shutdown. Tripwire can also play a significant part in the forensic analysis of your computer if it actually is compromised.

Tripwire consists of the following-

1. Configuration files control operation as a whole.

2. Policy files dictate allowed activities

3. Report files generate e-mail message notifying an administrator when a file changes

4. A database contains the binary signatures of the files themselves.

Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.