Scope and lifetime of variable

SCOPE AND LIFETIME OF A VARIBALE

The scope of a vriable is the part of the program for which the declaration is in effect.

In Java, the scope of such a variable is from its declaration to the end of the method.



The lifetime of a variable is the time period in which the variable has valid memory.
In Java, the lifetime of a variable is the period of time beginning when the method is entered and ending when execution of the method terminates.


Types of Scope of a varibale:
  • Local scope: "visible" within function or statement block from point of declaration until the end of the block.
  • Global scope: visible everywhere unless "hidden".
  • Class scope: "seen" by class members.
  • Namespace scope: visible within namespace block.
  • File scope: visible within current text file.
Type with lifetime of variable:
  • Static: A static variable is stored in the data segment of the "object file" of a program. Its lifetime is the entire duration of the program's execution.
  • Automatic: An automatic variable has a lifetime that begins when program execution enters the function or statement block or compound and ends when execution leaves the block. Automatic variables are stored in a "function call stack".
  • Dynamic: The lifetime of a dynamic object begins when memory is allocated for the object (e.g., by a call to malloc() or using new) and ends when memory is deallocated (e.g., by a call to free() or using delete). Dynamic objects are stored in "the heap".
Principles of Programming Languages

EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in PPL.

Practicals:
Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures
References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages
EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

Practicals:
Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture 

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming

    References:

    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    References:
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.