Run time environment


A program as a source code is merely a collection of text (code, statements etc.) and to make it alive, it requires actions to be performed on the target machine. A program needs memory resources to execute instructions. A program contains names for procedures, identifiers etc., that require mapping with the actual memory location at runtime.
By runtime, we mean a program in execution. Runtime environment is a state of the target machine, which may include software libraries, environment variables, etc., to provide services to the processes running in the system.

Activation Trees:-

A program is a sequence of instructions combined into a number of procedures. Instructions in a procedure are executed sequentially. A procedure has a start and an end delimiter and everything inside it is called the body of the procedure. The procedure identifier and the sequence of finite instructions inside it make up the body of the procedure.
The execution of a procedure is called its activation. An activation record contains all the necessary information required to call a procedure. An activation record may contain the following units (depending upon the source language used).
Stores temporary and intermediate values of an expression.
Local Data
Stores local data of the called procedure.
Machine Status
Stores machine status such as Registers, Program Counter etc., before the procedure is called.
Control Link
Stores the address of activation record of the caller procedure.
Access Link
Stores the information of data which is outside the local scope.
Actual Parameters
Stores actual parameters, i.e., parameters which are used to send input to the called procedure.
Return Value
Stores return values.
Whenever a procedure is executed, its activation record is stored on the stack, also known as control stack. When a procedure calls another procedure, the execution of the caller is suspended until the called procedure finishes execution. At this time, the activation record of the called procedure is stored on the stack.
We assume that the program control flows in a sequential manner and when a procedure is called, its control is transferred to the called procedure. When a called procedure is executed, it returns the control back to the caller. This type of control flow makes it easier to represent a series of activations in the form of a tree, known as the activation tree.

Storage Allocation:-

Runtime environment manages runtime memory requirements for the following entities:
·        Code : It is known as the text part of a program that does not change at runtime. Its memory requirements are known at the compile time.
·        Procedures : Their text part is static but they are called in a random manner. That is why, stack storage is used to manage procedure calls and activations.
·        Variables : Variables are known at the runtime only, unless they are global or constant. Heap memory allocation scheme is used for managing allocation and de-allocation of memory for variables in runtime.

Static Allocation:-

In this allocation scheme, the compilation data is bound to a fixed location in the memory and it does not change when the program executes. As the memory requirement and storage locations are known in advance, runtime support package for memory allocation and de-allocation is not required.

Stack Allocation:-

Procedure calls and their activations are managed by means of stack memory allocation. It works in last-in-first-out (LIFO) method and this allocation strategy is very useful for recursive procedure calls.

Heap Allocation:-

Variables local to a procedure are allocated and de-allocated only at runtime. Heap allocation is used to dynamically allocate memory to the variables and claim it back when the variables are no more required.
Except statically allocated memory area, both stack and heap memory can grow and shrink dynamically and unexpectedly. Therefore, they cannot be provided with a fixed amount of memory in the system.
As shown in the image above, the text part of the code is allocated a fixed amount of memory. Stack and heap memory are arranged at the extremes of total memory allocated to the program. Both shrink and grow against each other.

Parameter Passing:-

The communication medium among procedures is known as parameter passing. The values of the variables from a calling procedure are transferred to the called procedure by some mechanism. Before moving ahead, first go through some basic terminologies pertaining to the values in a program.


The value of an expression is called its r-value. The value contained in a single variable also becomes an r-value if it appears on the right-hand side of the assignment operator. r-values can always be assigned to some other variable.


The location of memory (address) where an expression is stored is known as the l-value of that expression. It always appears at the left hand side of an assignment operator.

Formal Parameters:-

Variables that take the information passed by the caller procedure are called formal parameters. These variables are declared in the definition of the called function.

Actual Parameters:-

Variables whose values or addresses are being passed to the called procedure are called actual parameters. These variables are specified in the function call as arguments.

Pass by Value:-

In pass by value mechanism, the calling procedure passes the r-value of actual parameters and the compiler puts that into the called procedure’s activation record. Formal parameters then hold the values passed by the calling procedure. If the values held by the formal parameters are changed, it should have no impact on the actual parameters.

Pass by Reference:-

In pass by reference mechanism, the l-value of the actual parameter is copied to the activation record of the called procedure. This way, the called procedure now has the address (memory location) of the actual parameter and the formal parameter refers to the same memory location. Therefore, if the value pointed by the formal parameter is changed, the impact should be seen on the actual parameter as they should also point to the same value.

Pass by Copy-restore:-

This parameter passing mechanism works similar to ‘pass-by-reference’ except that the changes to actual parameters are made when the called procedure ends. Upon function call, the values of actual parameters are copied in the activation record of the called procedure. Formal parameters if manipulated have no real-time effect on actual parameters (as l-values are passed), but when the called procedure ends, the l-values of formal parameters are copied to the l-values of actual parameters.

Pass by Name:-

Languages like Algol provide a new kind of parameter passing mechanism that works like preprocessor in C language. In pass by name mechanism, the name of the procedure being called is replaced by its actual body. Pass-by-name textually substitutes the argument expressions in a procedure call for the corresponding parameters in the body of the procedure so that it can now work on actual parameters, much like pass-by-reference.

Compiler Design covered following topics in Compiler Design.

Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.