Prototype Model

Prototype Model:

  • It requires that before carrying out actual software its prototype (model) must be created.
  • Prototype model is a toy implementation of system.
  • A prototype usually a demo version of actual system, possibly with limited functionality, low reliability, and inefficient performance compare to actual system.
  • Detailed information is not available in it.
  • Idea behind it is to create a prototype to gather the basic requirements.
  • Prototype is built on the basis of current available requirements.
  • It gives the “actual feel” of the system.
  • Prototype is not complete system many of the details are not built into the prototype.
  • The goal is to provide system with overall functionality.

Following is the illustration of Prototype model:

Advantages of Prototype Model:

  • Working model of system is provided, so user gets a better understanding.
  • Errors can be detected and corrected easily.
  • User feedback quickly and easily available which leads to a better solution.
  • Missing functionality can be easily identified.
  • Users are actively involved in development of system.

Disadvantages of Prototype Model:

  • Leads to complexity of the system, as scope of the system may expand beyond the original plan,
  • Incomplete application sometimes leads to confusion of actual system working.

When to use Prototype Model:

  • When lot of interaction with the user is needed.
  • In case of online system, web interfaces, where end user interaction is very high. Prototype model is best suited.
  • When consistent feedback from user is required.
More topics from Software Engineering to read
Software Engineering covered following topics in Software Engineering.
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.