Phases of compiler


What is Compiler ?

Compiler is a software which converts a program written in high level language (Source Language) to low level language (Machine Language).

What is Compilation ?

The compilation process is a sequence of various phases. 

Each phase takes input from its previous stage, has its own representation of source program, and feeds its output to the next phase of the compiler. 

Phases of Compiler:

1) Lexical Analysis: This phase scan the source code as a stream of characters and converts it into meaningful lexemes. Lexical analyzer represents these lexemes in the form of tokens as:












2) Syntax Analysis: It takes the token produced by lexical analysis as input and generates a parse tree or syntax tree. 

3) Semantic Analysis: Semantic analysis checks whether the parse tree constructed follows the rules of language. 

4) Intermediate Code Generation: After semantic analysis the compiler generates an intermediate code of the source code for the target machine. It is in between the high-level language and the machine language. This intermediate code should be generated in such a way that it makes it easier to be translated into the target machine code.

5) Code Optimization: The next phase does code optimization of the intermediate code. Optimization can be assumed as something that removes unnecessary code lines, and arranges the sequence of statements in order to speed up the program execution without wasting resources CPU, memory.

6) Code Generation: In this phase, the code generator takes the optimized representation of the intermediate code and maps it to the target machine language. 
7) Symbol Table: It is a data-structure maintained throughout all the phases of a compiler. All the identifier's names along with their types are stored here. The symbol table makes it easier for the compiler to quickly search the identifier record and retrieve it.

Read more topics in Compiler Design

Compiler Design covered following topics in Compiler Design.
  1. LEX
  2. Data structure in CD
  3. Specification & Recognition of Tokens
  4. Bootstrapping n porting
  5. Phases of compiler
  6. Input buffering
  7. Syntax analysis CFGs
  8. L-attribute definition
  9. LR parser
  10. Operator precedence parsing
  11. Analysis of syntax directed definition
  12. Recursive descent parser
  13. Recursive analysis/span
  14. Function and operator overloading
  15. Storage allocation strategies
  16. Equivalence of expression in type checking
  17. Storage organization
  18. Parameter passing
  19. Run time environment
  20. Type checking
  21. Polymorphic function
  22. Case statement CD
  23. Code generation issue in design of code generator
  24. Boolean expression
  25. Register allocation & assignment
  26. Intermediate code generation declaration and assignments
  27. Analysis synthesis model of compilation
  28. Code optimization
  29. Sources of optimization of basic blocks
  30. Loops in flow graphs
  31. Dead code elimination
  32. Loop optimization
  33. Introduction to global data flow analysis
  34. Data flow analysis of structure flow graph
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.