Mapping n operations


A file system block is the smallest “Container” of a Physical disk space allocated for data.

Each file system block is a contiguous area on the physical disk.

The block size of file system is fixed at the time of its creation.

The mapping process of user files to the disk storage subsystem with an LVM is shown in fig:

1. Files are created and managed by user and applications.

2. These files reside in the file system.

3. The file system are then mapped to units of data, or file system blocks.

4. The file system blocks are mapped to logical extents.

5. In turn, these are mapped to disk physical extents either through the LVM or through the operating system.

6. These physical extents are mapped to the disk storage subsystem.

There is no logical extents, if there exists no LVM. File system blocks are directly mapped to disk sectors without LVM.


There are following two operations with cache:

1. Read operation
2. Write operation

1. Read operation:

If a read request is issued by a host, the front end controller accesses the tag RAM to decide whether the needed data is present in cache.

If the data is present in the cache, it is known as read cache hit or read hit.

If the data is not present in the cache, it is known as cache miss.

2. Write operation:

A write operation is performed in following ways with the cache:-
  • Write through cache:
Data is put in the cache and written to the disk immediately. Then an acknowledgement is sent to the host. The risks of data loss are low because data is committed to disk as it arrives but write response time is longer due to the disk operations.
  • Write back cache:
Data is put in the cache and then an acknowledgement is sent to the host immediately. After that, data from many writes are performed to the disk. The write response times are faster. Even through, in the case of cache failures uncommitted data is at risk of loss.

More topics from ISM to read:

INFORMATION STORAGE & MANAGEMENT covered following topics in these notes.
  1. ILM
  2. Storage infrastructure
  3. Data proliferation
  4. Evolution of various storage technologies
  5. Data categorization
  6. Integrated VS Modular Array
  7. Component architecture of intelligent disk subsystem
  8. Intelligent disk subsystems overview
  9. Mapping n operations
  10. Storage system architecture
  11. RAID
  12. Hot spare
  13. Striping and Mirroring
  14. SAN security
  15. JBOD
  16. Elements of DAS,NAS,CAS,SAS
  17. Limitations of DAS
  18. Cloud vocabulary
  19. NAS security
  20. Management of DAS,NAS,CAS,SAN
  21. FC Connectivity
  22. Memory virtualization
  23. Data center concepts & requirements
  24. Network virtualization
  25. Server
  26. Architectural Framework ISM
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.