Linux Origins


Linux was started in 1990.

Linux was developed by Finnish student Linus Torvalds as his project (Free operating
system Kernel).

Linus Torvalds released the first version of Linux on 5 October 1991.

Later Students of Helsinki university, from California's.

Some of the releases of Linux are as follows:
  • 1992, Linux 1.0 version, it needed Unix to run on system.
  • 1996, Linux 2.0 version
  • 1999, Linux 2.2 version
  • 1999, Linux 2.2 version

In 2001, The version of Linux of very easy as compare to old versions of Linux. It supports dozens of processors. It also supports USB and plug and play hardwares.

All the softwares related to Linux are available under the GNU General Public License. It means from source code to all the software of Linux can be find easily. Its available free on internet.

Linux is a free operating system.

Linux source code can be manipulated and converted according to our need.

More topics from Linux to read
LINUX covered following topics in these notes.
LINUX solved questions
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.