L-attribute definition


L-Attribute Definitions:

L-Attribute class of Syntax Directed Definition (SDD) is called L-Attributed definitions. The idea behind this class is that, between the attributes associated with a production body, dependency-graph edges can go from left to right, but not from right to left hence L-attribute. 

L-Attribute grammars are a special type of attribute grammars. They allow the attributes to be evaluated in one depth-first left-to-right traversal of the SDD. As a result, attribute evaluation in L-attributed grammars can be incorporated conveniently in top-down parsing.

Many programming languages are L-attributed. Special types of compilers, the narrow compilers, are based on some form of L-attributed grammar. These are a strict superset of S-attributed grammars. Used for code synthesis. 

In L-attributed SDTs, a non-terminal can get values from its parent, child, and sibling nodes. 

Let following production 
S -->ABC 
S can take values from A, B, and C (synthesized). A can take values from S only. B can take values from S and A. C can get values from S, A, and B. 

No non-terminal can get values from the sibling to its right. 

Attributes in L-attributed SDTs are evaluated by depth-first and left-to-right parsing manner. 

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  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

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    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
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    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.