Issues in Language Translation

ISSUES IN LANGUAGE TRANSLATION

A programmer code a program using subprograms, statements, conditions, declaration etc. But a translator looks programming languages as a collection of symbols made up of thousands of characters. During translation a program is analyzed character by character.

During language translation issues occurs in the following way:
  1. Lexical analysis
  2. Syntax analysis
  3. Semantic analysis
  4. Symbol table
  5. Error handler

1) Lexical analysis: In this phase isuue is with grouping of charcters in to meaningfull words known as lexems. Here meaningfull words means identifiers, numbers, keywords, comments etc. The basic units means characters on which this analysis is performed known as tokens.
Lexical analyzer must analyze the type of each lexems and with a type tag that lexems is sends for higher analysis i.e, syntax analysis. This phase requires much translation time as compared to other phases.

2) Syntax analysis: Here syntax of lexems are checked using parse/syntax tree. Structures defined by the programmer are validated here. If getting any error during language translation in this phase, compiler throws a syntax error.

3) Semantic analysis: Semantic analysis judges whether the syntax structure constructed in the source program derives any meaning or not.

4) Symbol table: Symbol Table is an important data structure created and maintained by the compiler. All the phases uses symbol table as follows:
  1. Lexical Analysis: Creates new table entries in the symbol table, like tokens.
  2. Syntax Analysis: Adds information regarding attribute type, scope etc in the table.
  3. Semantic Analysis: Uses available information in the table to check for semantics i.e. to verify that expressions and assignments are semantically correct(type checking) and update it accordingly.
  4. Intermediate Code generation: Refers symbol table for knowing how much and what type of run-time is allocated and table helps in adding temporary variable information.
  5. Code Optimization: Uses information present in symbol table removing unnecessary codes from Intermediate codes.
  6. Target Code generation: Generates code by using address information of identifier present in the table.
5) Error handler: The tasks of the Error Handler is to detect each error, report it to the user, and then recover and implement them to handle error.
During this process processing time of program should not be slow. An Error is the blank entries in the symbol table.

Principles of Programming Languages

EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in PPL.

Practicals:
Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures
References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages
EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

Practicals:
Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture 

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming

    References:

    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    References:
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.