Introduction to R

Introduction to R

R is a programming language.

R is an environment for statistical computing and graphics.

What does R stands for in R programming?

The R is based on the first letter of first name of the two R authors, Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka.

Why to use R programming?

R is a programming language for statistical computing and graphics that you can use to clean, analyze, and graph your data.

It is widely used by researchers from diverse disciplines to estimate and display results and by teachers of statistics and research methods.

Advantages of R programming:

1. R is free and open source software

2. R provides plotting and graphical support

3. Highly Compatible

4. Platform Independent

5. Machine Learning Operations

6. R environment provides statistical analysis

7. R has active user groups where questions can be asked

8. R has no license restrictions

Disadvantages of R programming:

1. Documentation is sometimes patchy and terse

2. The quality of some packages is less than perfect

3. Does not have support for Dynamic and 3D graphics.

4. R packages are slower, compare to other programming languages

5. No prior knowledge of packages makes it difficult.

R Programming covered following topics in these notes.

  1. Introduction to R
  2. Installing R in Windows
  3. R Console
  4. R Window to edit and execute R commands
  5. Commands and Syntax
  6. Packages and Libraries in R
  7. Install and load a package in R
  8. Help in R

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Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.