Introduction to Database


Before knowing database one must know about data.

Data: In simple words data can be facts related to any object in consideration. For example your name, age, height, weigh, etc are some data related to you. A picture , image , file , pdf etc can also be considered data. So data is everything which needed memory or in device.

Database: Database is a systematic collection of data. Or we can say a database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can be easily accessed, managed and updated.
  • In Database a data is organized into rows, columns and tables. 
  • In database data is indexed to make it easier to find relevant information. 
  • In Database data gets updated, expanded and deleted as new information is added. 
  • Databases process workloads to create and update themselves, querying the data they contain and running applications against it.
In Database access to data is usually provided by a "database management system" (DBMS).

A DBMS is an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database.

Some examples of Database software programs are:
  1. Microsoft Access.
  2. Microsoft Excel.
  3. Microsoft SQL Server.
  4. MySQL.
  5. Oracle RDBMS.
Why do we need Database?
The various reasons for which we require databases are:
  • To manage large amount of data.
  • To manage the accuracy.
  • It provides ease of updating data.
  • Databases provides security groups and permission to data.
  • Databases assured of accuracy and consistency of data due to the built in integrity checks and access controls.
More topics from DBMS to read:

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM covered following topics in DBMS.
A list of Video lectures
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.