Interconnection network


Parallel processing needs the use of efficient system interconnects for fast communication among the Input/Output and peripheral devices, multiprocessors and shared memory.

Hierarchical Bus Systems
A hierarchical bus system consists of a hierarchy of buses connecting various systems and sub-systems/components in a computer. Each bus is made up of a number of signal, control, and power lines. Different buses like local buses, backplane buses and I/O buses are used to perform different interconnection functions.
Local buses are the buses implemented on the printed-circuit boards. A backplane bus is a printed circuit on which many connectors are used to plug in functional boards. Buses which connect input/output devices to a computer system are known as I/O buses.
Crossbar switch and Multiport Memory
Switched networks give dynamic interconnections among the inputs and outputs. Small or medium size systems mostly use crossbar networks. Multistage networks can be expanded to the larger systems, if the increased latency problem can be solved.
Both crossbar switch and multiport memory organization is a single-stage network. Though a single stage network is cheaper to build, but multiple passes may be needed to establish certain connections. A multistage network has more than one stage of switch boxes. These networks should be able to connect any input to any output.
Multistage and Combining Networks
Multistage networks or multistage interconnection networks are a class of high-speed computer networks which is mainly composed of processing elements on one end of the network and memory elements on the other end, connected by switching elements.
These networks are applied to build larger multiprocessor systems. This includes Omega Network, Butterfly Network and many more.
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.