Instruction Set


The instruction set also known as instruction set architecture (ISA).

ISA is part of a computer that related to machine language programming.

The instruction set provides commands to the processor, to tell it what it needs to do.

The instruction set consists of addressing mo0des, instructions, data types, registers,  memory architecture, interrupt, exception handling, external I/O, etc.

An example of an instruction set is the x86 instruction set, which is common to find on computers today.

Intel Pentium and AMD Athlon processors use nearly the same x86 instruction set.

Different computer processors can use almost the same instruction set while differ in internal design.

An instruction set can be built into the hardware of the processor as well as it can be emulated in software, using an interpreter.

The hardware design is more efficient and faster than the emulated software version.

Examples of instruction set

COMPARE – To compare numbers.

IN – To input information from a device, e.g. keyboard, scanners etc.

JUMP - Jump to designated RAM address.

JUMP IF - Conditional statement that jumps to a designated RAM address.

LOAD - Load information from RAM to the CPU.

OUT - Output information to device, e.g. monitor.

STORE - Store information to RAM.

ADD - Add two numbers together.

More topics from ACA to read:

ACA: ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE covered following topics in Advanced Computer Architecture.

Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.