,Hardware and software parallelism


What is Parallelism?
  • Performing more than one task at a time.
  • It speeds up the process.
  • More work in less time.
  • It reduces the cost of work.

Modern computer architecture implementation requires special hardware and software support for parallelism. Types of parallelism are-

1. Hardware parallelism
2. Software parallelism
1. Hardware Parallelism:
  • This refers to the type of parallelism defined by the machine architecture and hardware multiplicity.
  • Hardware parallelism is a function of cost and performance tradeoffs. It displays the resource utilization patterns of simultaneously executable operations. It can also indicate the peak performance of the processors.
  • One way to characterize the parallelism in a processor is by the number of instruction issues per machine cycle.
  • In a modern processor, two or more instructions can be issued per machine cycle. e .g i960CA was a 3-issue processor.
2. Software Parallelism:

  • It is defined by the control and data dependence of programs.
  • The degree of parallelism is revealed in the program profile or in the program flow graph.
  • Software parallelism is a function of algorithm, programming style, and compiler optimization.
  • The program flow graph displays the patterns of simultaneously executable operations.
  • Parallelism in a program varies during the execution period. It limits the continuous performance of the processor.
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages
EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture 

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.