Fundamentals of Data Processing


Data: Raw facts and figures are known as data. For example images, video, text file in mobile phones.

Information: Processed data is known as information.

Data Processing: it is basically concern with converting raw data in to well order information.

Need for data processing: it reduce the paper work for increasing volume of data.

Examples of data processing: 
1. Typing number of sales in system.
2. Searching your name on website.
3. Streaming videoon YouTube.
4. Communication

Data processing Activities:

1. Collection 
  • Originationg
  • Measuring
  • Recording
  • Comparing
2. Conversion
  • Coding
  • Classifying
  • Verifying
  • Transforming
3. Manipulation
  • Sorting
  • Calculating
  • Summarizing
  • Comparing
4. Storage
  • Storing
  • Retrieving
5. Comunication
  • Reproduction
1. Collection: Data originates in the form of events transactions or some observations. This data is then recorded in some usable form. 

2. Conversion:  Once the data is collected, it is converted from its source document to a form that is more suitable for processing. 

3. Manipulation: Once data is collected and converted it is ready for manipulation functions which convert data into information.

4. Stotage: Once data has been captured and manipulated it is stored.

5. Communication: It is a process of sharing information.

Component of data processing: 
1. Data Input 
2. Data Processing  
3. Maintaining Files & Record
4. Data Procedure & Instruction 
5. Output

Data Processing System:
A data processing system can be viewed as a system that uses data as input and processes this data to produce information as output. 

Data processing by application type:
1. Scientific data processing: A special type of data processing that is used in academic and research fields.

2. Commercial data processing: Used widely in the field of marketing, CRM, banking, billing, and payroll functions, etc. 

Data processing types by processing methods:
1. Batch processing: Batch processing completes a range of data processes as a batch, by simplifying single commands to provide actions to multiple data sets. 

2. Real time data processing: The most common technology used in real time processing is stream processing. USed in ticket booking system.

3. Multi processing: various set of processing devices are included in this method, therefore the outcome efficiency is very useful. The jobs are broken into frames and then sent to the multiprocessors for processing. 

4. Time sharing: Each user is allocated with the set timings on which they need to work on the same CPU/processing Unit. 

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a system that provides an interface to database for information storage and retrieval.
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.