File systems

File Systems: 

A filesystem is the methods and data structures that an operating system uses to keep track of files on a disk or partition, that is, the way the files are organized on the disk. 
A file is an entry in a directory. The file may have attributes like name, creator, date, type, permissions etc.

File Structure:
A file has various kinds of structure. Some of them can be :
  1. 1. Simple Record Structure with lines of fixed or variable lengths.
  2. Complex Structures like formatted document or reloadable load files.
  3. No Definite Structure like sequence of words and bytes etc.
Attributes of a File:
  1. Name. It is the only information which is in human-readable form.
  2. Identifier. The file is identified by a unique tag(number) within file system.
  3. Type. It is needed for systems that support different types of files.
  4. Location. Pointer to file location on device.
  5. Size. The current size of the file.
  6. Protection. This controls and assigns the power of reading, writing, executing.
File Access Methods:
  1. Sequential Access:Data is accessed one record right after another is an order.
  2. Direct Access: There are no restrictions, blocks read/written, can be done in any order.
  3. Indexed Sequential Access: It uses an Index to control the pointer while accessing files.
Operating Systems: covered following topics in Operating Systems.
    A list of Video lectures
    Python Programming ↓ 👆
    Java Programming ↓ 👆
    JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
    JAVA Programs
    Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
    Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

    Previous years solved papers:
    A list of Video lectures References:
    1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
    2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
    3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
    4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

      Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

      Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

      1. Structure of desktop computers
      2. Logic gates
      3. Register organization
      4. Bus structure
      5. Addressing modes
      6. Register transfer language
      7. Direct mapping numericals
      8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
      9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


      1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
      2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

      Computer Network ↓ 👆
      Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
      1. Data Link Layer
      2. Framing
      3. Byte count framing method
      4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
      5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
      6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
      7. Error control in data link layer
      8. Stop and Wait scheme
      9. Sliding Window Protocol
      10. One bit sliding window protocol
      11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
      12. Selective repeat protocol
      13. Application layer
      1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
      2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
      3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
      4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.