Evolution of various storage technologies


The evolution of open systems and the affordability and ease of deployment that they offer made it possible for business units/departments to have their own servers and storage. This technology evolution include:

1. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID): This technology was developed to address the cost, performance, and availability requirements of data. It continues to evolve today and is used in all storage architectures such as DAS, SAN, and so on.

2. Direct-attached storage (DAS): This type of storage connects directly to a server (host) or a group of servers in a cluster. Storage can be either internal or external to the server. External DAS alleviated the challenges of limited internal storage capacity.

3. Storage area network (SAN): This is a dedicated, high-performance Fibre Channel (FC) network to facilitate block-level communication between servers and storage. Storage is partitioned and assigned to a server for accessing its data. SAN offers scalability, availability, performance, and cost benefits compared to DAS.

4. Network-attached storage (NAS): This is dedicated storage for file serving applications. Unlike a SAN, it connects to an existing communication network (LAN) and provides file access to heterogeneous clients. Because it is purposely built for providing storage to file server applications, it offers higher scalability, availability, performance, and cost benefits compared to general purpose file servers.

5. Internet Protocol SAN (IP-SAN): One of the latest evolutions in storage architecture, IP-SAN is a convergence of technologies used in SAN and NAS. IP-SAN provides block-level communication across a local or wide area network (LAN or WAN), resulting in greater consolidation and availability of data.

More topics from ISM to read:


EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
  1. ILM
  2. Storage infrastructure
  3. Data proliferation
  4. Evolution of various storage technologies
  5. Data categorization
  6. Integrated VS Modular Array
  7. Component architecture of intelligent disk subsystem
  8. Intelligent disk subsystems overview
  9. Mapping n operations
  10. Storage system architecture
  11. RAID
  12. Hot spare
  13. Striping and Mirroring
  14. SAN security
  15. JBOD
  16. Elements of DAS,NAS,CAS,SAS
  17. Limitations of DAS
  18. Cloud vocabulary
  19. NAS security
  20. Management of DAS,NAS,CAS,SAN
  21. FC Connectivity
  22. Memory virtualization
  23. Data center concepts & requirements
  24. Network virtualization
  25. Server
  26. Architectural Framework ISM
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages
EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture 

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.