Digital signature standard


1. This Standard specifies algorithms for applications requiring a digital signature, rather than a written signature.

2. A digital signature is represented in a computer as a string of bits.

3. A digital signature is computed using a set of rules and a set of parameters that allow the identity of the signatory and the integrity of the data to be verified. Digital signatures may be generated on both stored and transmitted data.

4. Signature generation uses a private key to generate a digital signature, signature verification uses a public key that corresponds to, but is not the same as, the private key. Each signatory possesses a private and public key pair.

5. Public keys may be known by the public, private keys are kept secret. Anyone can verify the signature by employing the signatory’s public key.

6. Only the user that possesses the private key can perform signature generation.

7. A hash function is used in the signature generation process to obtain a condensed version of the data to be signed; the condensed version of the data is often called a message digest.

General Discussion: 
A digital signature is an electronic analogue of a written signature. 
The digital signature can be used to provide assurance that the claimed signatory signed the information. 
In addition, a digital signature may be used to detect whether or not the information was modified after it was signed (i.e., to detect the integrity of the signed data). 
These assurances may be obtained whether the data was received in a transmission or retrieved from storage. 
A properly implemented digital signature algorithm that meets the requirements of this Standard can provide these services.

Digital Signature Generation:  Figure 2 depicts the steps that are performed by an intended signatory (i.e., the entity that generates a digital signature).

Digital Signature Verification and Validation: 

Figure depicts the digital signature verification and validation process that are performed by a verifier (e.g., the intended recipient of the signed data and associated digital signature).

Note that the figure depicts a successful verification and validation process (i.e., no errors are detected).

If the verification and assurance processes are successful, the digital signature and signed data shall be considered valid.

However, if a verification or assurance process fails, the digital signature should be considered invalid.

An organization’s policy shall govern the action to be taken for an invalid digital signature. Such policy is outside the scope of this Standard.

More topics from NWS to read:

NETWORK & WEB SECURITY covered following topics in NWS.
Python Programming ↓ 👆
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JAVA Programs
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Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.