Array generally fall into one of two categories, monolithic and modular.

Integrated Aeeay:

1. Monolithic array are sometimes called integrated arrays, enterprise arrays, or cache centric arrays.

2. Monolithic storage systems are generally aimed at the enterprise level, centralizing data in a powerful system with hundreds of drives.

Characteristics of integrated array:
  1. Large storage capacity.
  2. Large amount of cache to temporarily store I/Os before writing to disk.
  3. Redundant components for improved data protection and availability.
  4. Many built in features to make them more robust and fault tolerant
  5. Usually connect to mainframes or very powerful open systems hosts.
  6. Multiple front end ports to provide connectivity to multiple server.
  7. Multiple back end fibre channel or SCSI RAID controllers to manage disk processing.
  8. Expensive.

Modular Array:

1. Modular storage system provide storage to a smaller number of windows or UNIX servers then the larger integrated storage system.

2. Modular storage system are typically designed with two controllers, each of which container host interface, cache, RAID processors and disk drive interface.

Characteristics of Modular array:
  1. Small companies/department level.
  2. Smaller disk capacity and less global cache.
  3. Takes up less floor space and costs less.
  4. Can start with a smaller number of disks and scale as needed.
  5. Fewer front end ports for connection for server.
  6. Performance can degrade as capacity increases.
  7. Cannot connect to mainframe.
  8. Limited redundant and connectivity.
  9. Usually have separate controllers from the disk array
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.