Concept of Threads

Concept of Threads:

A thread is a single sequential flow of control within a program. A thread is the smallest unit of processing that can be performed in an OS. A thread exists within a process. A single process may contain multiple threads.
There are two types of threads to be managed in a modern system: 
User threads and kernel threads.

Working of threads: Each thread in the process shares the same memory and resources. Because threads share the same address space as the process and other threads within the process, the operational cost of communication between the threads is low, which is an advantage. Threads are not independent of one another like processes are, and as a result threads share with other threads their code section, data section, and OS resources (like open files and signals). But, like process, a thread has its own program counter (PC), register set, and stack space.

Benefits of Threads in OS:
1. Threads minimize the context switching time.
2. Use of threads provides concurrency within a process.
3. Efficient communication.
4. It is more economical to create and context switch threads.
5. Threads allow utilization of multiprocessor architectures to a greater scale and efficiency.

Operating Systems: covered following topics in Operating Systems.
    A list of Video lectures
    Python Programming ↓ 👆
    Java Programming ↓ 👆
    JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
    JAVA Programs
    Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
    Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

    Previous years solved papers:
    A list of Video lectures References:
    1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
    2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
    3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
    4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

      Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

      Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

      1. Structure of desktop computers
      2. Logic gates
      3. Register organization
      4. Bus structure
      5. Addressing modes
      6. Register transfer language
      7. Direct mapping numericals
      8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
      9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


      1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
      2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

      Computer Network ↓ 👆
      Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
      1. Data Link Layer
      2. Framing
      3. Byte count framing method
      4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
      5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
      6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
      7. Error control in data link layer
      8. Stop and Wait scheme
      9. Sliding Window Protocol
      10. One bit sliding window protocol
      11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
      12. Selective repeat protocol
      13. Application layer
      1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
      2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
      3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
      4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.