Case Study of Distributed System


Definition of Distributed System:-
A distributed system is a network that consists of autonomous computers that are connected using a distribution middleware. They help in sharing different resources and capabilities to provide users with a single and integrated coherent network.

                                                   Block Diagram of Distributed System
Examples of Distributed Systems :-
(1)   Intranets  a single authority  protected access - a firewall - total isolation  may be worldwiden  typical services: - infrastructure services: file service, name service - application services

(2) Resource Sharing:-
Resource Sharing and the Web  Hardware resources (reducen costs)  Data resources (shared usage of information)  Service resources  search engines  computer-supportedncooperative working  Service vs. server.

Distributed application:-
• one single “system”
 • one or several autonomous subsystems
• a collection of processors => parallel processing
=> increased performance, reliability, fault tolerance
 • partitioned or replicated data
 => increased performance, reliability, fault tolerance Dependable systems, grid systems, enterprise systems
Goals  Of  Distributed System:-
1)      Making resources accessible
2)      Distribution transparency
3)        Opennessn  Scalability
4)        Security
5)       System design requirements

1) Making Resources Accessible:-
(1)  Naming Access control
(2) Security 
(4) Performance
(5)  Mutual exclusion of users
2) Transparency:- 
Transparency:- concealment of distribution =>  user’s viewpoint: a single unified system
(1) The fundamental idea: a collection of  independent,
(2) autonomous actors 
3) Concurrency:-
 Concurrency:  Several simultaneous users => integrity of data - mutual exclusion - synchronization - ext: transaction processing in data bases  Replicated data: consistency of information?

4)    Openness:-
 Making the network easier to configure and modify.
1.      Openness facilitates
2.       interoperability,
3.      portability,
4.      extensibility,
5.      adaptivity
6.      Activities addresses
7.      extensions: new components re-implementations.

5)    Security:-
Security  is a big challenge in a distributed environment, especially when using public networks.
6)    Scalability:-
 Distributed systems should be scalable with respect to geography, administration or size.

7)    Reliability:-
Compared to a single system, a distributed system should be highly capable of being  secure, consistent and have a high capability of masking errors.

DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM covered following topics in these notes.
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.