Bootstrapping and porting



Bootstrapping is used to create compilers and to move them from one machine to another by modifying the back end.

A compiler is characterized by three languages:

  1. Source Language (S)
  2. Target Language  (T)
  3. Implementation Language (I) 


Porting the compiler to the new host computer now only requires that the back end of the source code be rewritten to generate code for the new machine. This is then compiled using the old compiler to produce a cross compiler, and the compiler is again recompiled by the cross compiler to produce a working version for the new machine.

Compiler Design covered following topics in Compiler Design.
  1. LEX
  2. Data structure in CD
  3. Specification & Recognition of Tokens
  4. Bootstrapping n porting
  5. Phases of compiler
  6. Input buffering
  7. Syntax analysis CFGs
  8. L-attribute definition
  9. LR parser
  10. Operator precedence parsing
  11. Analysis of syntax directed definition
  12. Recursive descent parser
  13. Recursive analysis/span
  14. Function and operator overloading
  15. Storage allocation strategies
  16. Equivalence of expression in type checking
  17. Storage organization
  18. Parameter passing
  19. Run time environment
  20. Type checking
  21. Polymorphic function
  22. Case statement CD
  23. Code generation issue in design of code generator
  24. Boolean expression
  25. Register allocation & assignment
  26. Intermediate code generation declaration and assignments
  27. Analysis synthesis model of compilation
  28. Code optimization
  29. Sources of optimization of basic blocks
  30. Loops in flow graphs
  31. Dead code elimination
  32. Loop optimization
  33. Introduction to global data flow analysis
  34. Data flow analysis of structure flow graph
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.