Architecture of Cloud computing and cloud storage

Cloud Computing Architecture

Cloud computing is a utility-oriented and Internet-centric way of delivering IT services on demand.
As seen in the image below. Cloud computing architecture includes:
  1. IaaS, Infrastructure as a service
  2. PaaS, Platform as a service
  3. SaaS, Software as a service

From the book of Sir Rajkumar Buyya
Cloud Computing Architecture
Cloud infrastructure can be heterogeneous in nature because a variety of resources, such as 
  • Clusters 
  • Networked PCs, 
  • Databases
  • Cloud application
  • Cloud programming tools
  • Hosting platforms
  • Virtual machines, etc are used.
From the diagram above, we will discuss about:
  1. IaaS
  2. PaaS
  3. SaaS
  4. User applications
  5. User-level middleware
  6. Core middleware
  7. System infrastructure
1. IaaS:
  1. IaaS stands for infrastructure as a service.
  2. Infrastructure as service or IaaS is the basic layer in cloud computing model. 
  3. IaaS offers servers, network devices, load balancers, database, Web servers etc.
  4. IaaS examples can be categorized in two categories
    1. IaaS Management layer
    2. IaaS Physical infrastructure
  5. Some service providers provide both above categories and some provides only management layer.
  6. IaaS management layer also required integration with ohter IaaS solutions that provide  physical infrastructure.
  7. Main technologies behind IaaS is hardware virtualization.
  8. Some examples: 
    • Amazon Web Services (AWS),
    • Microsoft Azure, 
    • Google Compute Engine (GCE)

2. PaaS:
  1. PaaS stands for platform as a service.
  2. PaaS provides a computing platform with a programming language execution environment.
  3. PaaS offered to the user is a development platform
  4. PaaS solutions generally include the infrastructure as well.
  5. PurePaaS offered only the user-level middleware.
  6. Some examples:
    • Google App Engine

3. SaaS:
  1. SaaS stands for software as a service.
  2. Software as a service (SaaS) allows users to connect to and use cloud-based apps over the Internet.
  3. SaaS is the service with which end users interact directly.
  4. Some examples:
    • Gmail
    • Google drive
    • Dropbox
    • WhatsApp

4. User applications: 
  1. It includes cloud applications thruough which end user get intercact.
  2. There may be different types of user applications, like scientific, gaming, social etc.
  3. Some of the examples are Gmail,, etc.
5. User-level middleware:
  1. It includes cloud programming environment and tools.
  2. There may be different types of programming environments and tools depends on the user applications.
  3. Some of the examples of user level middleware are web 2.0, libraries, scripting.
6. Core middleware:
  1. It includes cloud hosting platforms.
  2. It manage quality of service.
  3. Execution management.
  4. Accounting, metering etc.
  5. Virtual machines are the part of core middleware.
7. System infrastructure:
  1. It includes cloud resources.
  2. Storage hardware
  3. Servers, databases are part of it.
More topics from Cloud Computing to read
Cloud Computing: covered following topics in these notes.
  1. Introduction to Cloud Computing
  2. Historical development of Cloud Computing 
  3. Vision of Cloud Computing
  4. Characteristics of cloud computing as per NIST
  5. Cloud computing reference model
  6. Cloud computing environments
  7. Cloud services requirements
  8. Cloud and dynamic infrastructure
  9. Cloud Adoption and rudiments
  10. Cloud application: ECG Analysis in the cloud
  11. Cloud application: Protein structure prediction
  12. Cloud application: Gene Expression Data Analysis
  13. Cloud Computing Architecture
  14. IaaS
  15. PaaS
  16. SaaS
  17. Types of Clouds
  18. Cloud Interoperability & Standards
  19. Scalability and Fault Tolerance
  20. Cloud Ecosystem
  21. Cloud Business Process Management
  22. Cloud Service Management
  23. Cloud Analytics
  24. Testing Under Control
  25. Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
  26. Cloud Resiliency
  27. Cloud Provisioning
  28. Asset management
  29. Concepts of Map reduce
  30. Cloud Governance
  31. High Availability and Disaster Recovery
  32. Virtualization in cloud computing
  33. Server virtualization
  34. Hypervisor management software
  35. Third Party Cloud Services
  36. Case Study: Google App Engine
  37. Case Study: Microsoft Azure
  38. Case Study: Hadoop
  39. Case Study: Amazon
  40. Case Study: Aneka
A list of Video lectures
  1. Buyya, Selvi ,” Mastering Cloud Computing “,TMH Pub
  2. Krutz , Vines, “Cloud Security “ , Wiley Pub
  3. Velte, “Cloud Computing- A Practical Approach” ,TMH Pub
  4. Sosinsky, “ Cloud Computing” , Wiley Pub
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.