Application Layer

Computer network | Application layer

The top most layer in OSI and TCP/IP layered model.

User and user applications interact with this layer. 

Interaction with application layer may be direct or indirect.

The layers below the application layer are there to provide transport services.



Examples of application layer programs:

1. HTTP 
  1. EasyExamNotes.com is not an application layer program.
  2. But we need web browser to access website.
  3. And web browser uses Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to interact.
  4. HTTP is Application Layer protocol.
  5. EasyExamNotes.com is a GUI to use this protocol.
2. FTP
  1. It helps a user to transfer files.
  2. Gmail provides GUI to use this protocol.
More topics from Computer Network to read.
Computer Network
  1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
  2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture", Pearson Education
  3. Kaveh Pahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
  4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.
Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages
EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

Practicals:
Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture 

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming

    References:

    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network

    EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    References:
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.