Analysis synthesis model of compilation

The analysis and synthesis phases of a compiler are:
Analysis Phase: Breaks the source program into constituent pieces and creates intermediate representation. The analysis part can be divided along the following phases:
Lexical Analysis- The program is considered as a unique sequence of characters. The Lexical Analyzer reads the program from left-to-right and sequence of characters is grouped into tokens–lexical units with a collective meaning.
Syntax Analysis- The Syntactic Analysis is also called Parsing. Tokens are grouped into grammatical phrases represented by a Parse Tree, which gives a hierarchical structure to the source program.
Semantic Analysis- The Semantic Analysis phase checks the program for semantic errors (Type Checking) and gathers type information for the successive phases. Type Checking check types of operands; No real number as index of array etc
Synthesis Phase: Generates the target program from the intermediate representation. The synthesis part can be divided along the following phases:

Intermediate Code Generator- An intermediate code is generated as a program for an abstract machine. The intermediate code should be easy to translate into the target program.
Code Optimizer- This phase attempts to improve the intermediate code so that faster-running machine code can be obtained. Different compilers adopt different optimization techniques.
Code Generator- This phase generates the target code consisting of assembly code. Here
Ø  Memory locations are selected for each variable
Ø  Instructions are translated into a sequence of assembly instructions
Ø  Variables and intermediate results are assigned to memory registers.

Python Programming ↓ 👆
Java Programming ↓ 👆
JAVA covered following topics in these notes.
JAVA Programs
Principles of Programming Languages ↓ 👆
Principles of Programming Languages covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:
A list of Video lectures References:
  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, "Programming Languages", 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley

    Computer Organization and Architecture ↓ 👆

    Computer Organization and Architecture covered following topics in these notes.

    1. Structure of desktop computers
    2. Logic gates
    3. Register organization
    4. Bus structure
    5. Addressing modes
    6. Register transfer language
    7. Direct mapping numericals
    8. Register in Assembly Language Programming
    9. Arrays in Assembly Language Programming


    1. William stalling ,“Computer Architecture and Organization” PHI
    2. Morris Mano , “Computer System Organization ”PHI

    Computer Network ↓ 👆
    Computer Network covered following topics in these notes.
    1. Data Link Layer
    2. Framing
    3. Byte count framing method
    4. Flag bytes with byte stuffing framing method
    5. Flag bits with bit stuffing framing method
    6. Physical layer coding violations framing method
    7. Error control in data link layer
    8. Stop and Wait scheme
    9. Sliding Window Protocol
    10. One bit sliding window protocol
    11. A protocol Using Go-Back-N
    12. Selective repeat protocol
    13. Application layer
    1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall, “Computer Networks” Pearson Education.
    2. Douglas E Comer, “Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, And Architecture",Pearson Education
    3. KavehPahlavan, Prashant Krishnamurthy, “Networking Fundamentals”, Wiley Publication.
    4. Ying-Dar Lin, Ren-Hung Hwang, Fred Baker, “Computer Networks: An Open Source Approach”, McGraw Hill.