PPL: Programming Paradigm


There are basically four programming paradigms in programming languages:

1) Imperative programming languages
2) Functional programming languages 
3) Logic programming languages 
4) Object-oriented programming languages 

Others are:

5) Event-Driven programming languages 
6) Concurrent / parallel programming languages 

7) Special purpose programming languages 

1) Imperative programming languages:
It is also known as procedural languages.
An imperative language uses a sequence of statements to determine how to reach a certain goal. Means here you will get the answer how to do a task not what to do.
For example in C,
int a = 4;
int b = 5;
int sum = 0;
sum = a + b;
From assigning values to each variable to the final addition of those values,each statement changes the state of the program. Using a sequence of five statements the program shows how to add the numbers 4 and 15.
Example of Imperative language is: C, C++

2) Functional  programming languages:
It is also known as applicative languages.
Functional programming is a form of declarative programming (mathematical function).
Programming consists of building the function that computes the answer.
There are two types:
  1. Pure Functional languages: It supports only functional paradigm. Ex. Haskell.
  2. Impure Functional languages: It supports both functional and imperative paradigm. Ex. Lisp.

Example of Functional language is: Lisp, Python, Haskell.

3) Logic programming languages:
This type of languages concentrate on what is the expected outcome for the program instead of how the outcome is achieved. Logical programming is something like math .Logic program statements express facts and rules about problems. To understand the rules, lets take an example like, “A is true if B and C is true”.
And to understand facts we can say that “A is true”.

Example of Logic language is: Prolog.

4) Object-oriented programming languages:
Object oriented programming language based on object instead of just functions and procedures. It involves concepts of oops programming languages.
For example: C++, Java.
5) Event Driven programming languages:
These languages are execute various operations based on user activities like mouse click and other events.
For example: Visual Basic, Java.
6) Concurrent or Parallel programming languages:
These are used to build various distributed programs. 
For example: SR, Linda.
7) Special purpose programming languages:
These programming languages are used for special task.
For example: SQL, HTML.

Q1. Which of the following is not a programming paradigm style? 
a) Functional paradigm 
b) Imperative paradigm 
c) Procedure paradigm
Q2. Logic paradigm is largely utilized in_______.
a)Artificial Intelligence
c)Web Development
Q3. In object-oriented, everything is represented as an______.
Q4. Popular functional programming languages are______.
a) Python
b) Lisp
c) C++
Q5. The ‘first do this, next do that’ is a short phrase for describing which style of programming paradigm?
a) Imperative
b) Functional
c) Logic
Q6. We can simply define programming paradigm as______
a) A programming language
b) A process
c) A classifying style of a programming language
Q7. While the functional paradigm emphasizes the idea of a mathematical function, the logic paradigm focusses on which of the following?
a) Objects
b) Classes
c) Predicate logic
Q8.  Which of the following is not a characteristic of object oriented programming paradigm?
a) Abstraction
b) Inheritance
c) Subprogram
Q9. The Functional programming paradigm is mainly used to perform mathematical functions without changing_______
a) State
b) Function
c) Program
Q10. What is the second name of imperative programming Paradigm?
a) Procedural Paradigm
b) Functional Paradigm
c) Object Oriented Paradigm
MCQs Answers:
Q1. (c)
Q2. (a)
Q3. (b)
Q4. (c)
Q5. (a)
Q6. (c)
Q7. (c)
Q8. (c)
Q9. (a)
Q10. (a)

Principles of Programming Languages:

EasyExamNotes.com covered following topics in these notes.

Previous years solved papers:

A list of Video lectures


  1. Sebesta,”Concept of programming Language”, Pearson Edu 
  2. Louden, “Programming Languages: Principles & Practices” , Cengage Learning 
  3. Tucker, “Programming Languages: Principles and paradigms “, Tata McGraw –Hill. 
  4. E Horowitz, “Programming Languages”, 2nd Edition, Addison Wesley 

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